to the second edition here have been significant changes in pediatric chapter 56 by maya eibschitz-tsimhoni, md, is a t ophthalmology and strabismus since the first wonderful contribution to the literature, as it reviews edition. great effort has gone into incorporat- 235 important ocular disorders that have systemic ing recent advances into this second edition. each manifestations, and it includes a detailed glossary of chapter in the book has been revised, and over half of terms. them have been completely rewritten. in addition to as with the first edition, our goal is to present a updating and revising the entire book, we have added comprehensive textbook of pediatric ophthalmology three new chapters: chapter 7 on electrophysiology and strabismus written in a clear, reader-friendly style. and the eye, chapter 1 7 on strabismus surgery, and our hope is that the readerwill find the second edi- chapter 56 on congenital syndromes with ocular man- tion of pediatric ophthalmology and strabismus to ifestations. chapter 17 is the definitive work on pedi- be scientifically informative, clinically useful, and en- atric ocular electrophysiology, bar none, and was fin- joyable to read. ished just weeks before the untimely death of its author, dr.tony kriss (see tribute in chapter 17).show more
this book provides up-to-date information on all aspects of orofacial pain biomarkers. it opens by presenting background information on clinical phenotypes and the neurobiological substrates underlying chronic orofacial pain and by explaining the potential role of biomarkers in the diagnosis, prognostic evaluation, and treatment of orofacial pain. the main section of the book examines the contribution of human and animal studies to the field of biomarkers for orofacial pain and discusses biomarkers for masticatory muscle pain, temporomandibular joint pain, neuropathic face pain, and autonomic nervous system involvement in trigeminal facial pain. the potential impacts of the immune system on orofacial pain biomarkers and candidate gene phenotypes with possible links to chronic orofacial pain conditions are also addressed, and differences and similarities between saliva and serum biomarkers for pain are explained as well. the final section covers research-related issues in assessment methods and statistical analyses used in evaluating biomarkers, identifies future challenges and suggests new directions in the field.show more
this atlas is unique in comparing the two disciplines of dental implant surgery and tooth-preserving surgery with respect to common procedures, problems, and failures and in providing excellent guidance on the prevention and management of complications. the etiology of a wide variety of implant-related and non-implant-related complications and failures is carefully explained. since many complications have their roots in oral and periodontal surgical maneuvers, these maneuvers are themselves discussed and extensively illustrated. the most frequently used tooth preservation procedures are also fully described, with emphasis on correct surgical technique as a means to avoid complications. the use of these procedures is constantly weighed against the effects of tooth removal and insertion of dental implants. the text is complemented by the inclusion of a substantial number of helpful references.while the atlas is intended primarily for dentists involved in outpatient implant dentistry and oral surgery, oral and maxillofacial surgeons will also find the descriptions of innovative techniques or maneuvers to be of interest, including those relating to the selection of incision and flap design and the sinus floor elevation techniques.show more
this text provides a comprehensive, state-of-the art review of complex endovascular aortic techniques. it will serve as a valuable resource for vascular and cardiovascular surgeons, interventionalists, cardiologists, clinicians, bioengineers and researchers with an interest in complex aortic diseases. the book reviews imaging modalities, diagnostic work up and novel endovascular approaches. technical aspects are provided by experts in the field, with over 600 illustrations and photographs of key steps for each type of procedure. results of epidemiologic studies and national databases are summarized, as well as large institutional experiences. an evidence-based approach is used for recommendations regarding best therapies. other highlights of this unique text include: a new, state-of-the-art review on fenestrated, branched and parallel stent-graft techniques from procedure planning to stent design and implantation. a text dedicated to a topic that has been increasingly recognized by vascular specialists as a priority area in aortic management. an updated overview of current designs and future developments.special attention to technical details of the procedures with use of illustrations. technical tips on how to get out of problems during these challenging procedures. endovascular aortic repair: current techniques with fenestrated, branched and parallel stent-grafts will serve as a very useful resource for physicians and researchers dealing with and interested in complex aortic diseases. it will provide a concise yet comprehensive summary of the current status of the field that will help guide patient management and stimulate investigative efforts. all chapters are written by experts in their fields and include the most up to date scientific and clinical information.show more
this book aims to explore the intricate interrelationship between oral health and sport, with the focus on highly popular team games, endurance sports, and explosive events. in order to understand the vulnerability of athletes of all levels of ability to oral health problems, relevant aspects of sports physiology and training are outlined, as are the predisposing behavioral, psychological, and physiological elements. specific sports-related oral risk factors are identified and detailed, and the dental conditions frequently observed in athletes are explained. the dental clinical reality of athletes reveals a wide spectrum of oral consequences, affecting both soft and hard tissues, that can adversely impact on training and competitiveness. principles of dental management are highlighted, and therapeutic solutions provided for the most common dental lesions. emphasis is placed on preventative measures and solutions adapted to the athlete's individual needs, as well as the importance of effective collaboration with a diverse team of professionals.the book will be of interest to dentists, health professionals, sports coaches, athletes, and teachers and students of dentistry and medical disciplines.show more
this book provides detailed guidance on the recognition and treatment of the complications most frequently encountered in patients who undergo temporomandibular joint surgery. evidence-based guidelines are referred to whenever possible, and when such guidelines are lacking, the preferred current approaches to diagnosis and management are described. in addition, the pathophysiology of each complication is discussed and advice offered on how to ensure that the correct surgical procedure is chosen for the individual patient, thereby minimizing the risk of complications. illustrative cases are included to further highlight key points. the authors are experienced surgeons and pioneers in the field of temporomandibular joint surgery. complications of temporomandibular joint surgery will be of value for all who work in this technically very challenging field and regularly have to deal with the issues posed by a difficult patient population and the risk of suboptimal outcomes.show more
this book provides a comprehensive introduction to physiologic anchorage control, explains the implications for clinical practice, and presents an anchorage technique applicable for the treatment of different malocclusions. the concept of physiologic anchorage control is derived from observations of upper molar movement during growth in adolescence, including in the absence of orthodontic treatment, which indicate that molar forward displacement comprises two components: the first due to biologic force or physiologic anchorage loss and the second due to orthodontic force or mechanical anchorage loss. all previous anchorage methods have been based on the assumption that molar anchorage loss is to be attributed solely to the mechanical force used to retract anterior teeth, and the new concept represents a paradigm shift of clinical significance. this book explores the pattern of upper molar growth in depth, highlights the physiologic significance of the curve of spee, and analyzes the biomechanics of physiologic anchorage control. an anchorage control system that fully takes into account the latest conceptual insights is described and its clinical use and utility, examined.show more
this book provides a comprehensive update on the latest information and knowledge which emerged from translational and basic science research endeavors, targeting the regeneration of salivary glands. the coverage includes salivary gland growth and development, stem cell therapy, bioengineering of salivary glands, and perspectives on and practical approaches to restoration of secretory function. more specifically, among the individual topics addressed are the various types of stem cell of value for cell replacement therapy, technological advances with respect to 3d printing, gene therapy, organ culture of salivary glands, and surgical aspects of the feasibility and practicality of transplantation. readers will find helpful practical guidance on functional restorations of damaged salivary glands and stimulating insights into potential future directions in salivary gland regeneration research. the authors are all acknowledged experts from a range of academic and clinical backgrounds.accordingly, the book will be of interest not only to clinicians, such as general dental practitioners, oral medicine specialists, and surgeons who manage dry mouth patients, but also to biomedical engineers, stem cell researchers, and transplant surgeons.show more
this book is a complete reference for all clinicians who are interested in incorporating into their daily practice the techniques available to reduce the duration of orthodontic treatment and to overcome other treatment limitations. it focuses especially on micro-osteoperforations (mops) as the most conservative, efficient, and versatile approach to increase the rate of tooth movement. the opening chapters describe the biological principles of current accelerated techniques at the molecular and cellular levels and introduce guidelines on how to select the best acceleration approach based on each patient's needs. clinicians are then guided step by step through the application of mops, case selection, and treatment planning. it is explained how mops can be incorporated into daily mechanotherapy for the treatment of different malocclusions and how to take advantage of the catabolic and anabolic effects of the procedure to expand the boundary of orthodontic and orthopaedic corrections. the book is written in a simple and clear language with many illustrations and clinical examples to facilitate understanding of concepts and procedures.in addition, it is a rich source for academicians and researchers interested in a comprehensive and updated review on theories of tooth movement and accelerated orthodontic techniques.show more
this book is a comprehensive guide to pediatric dental fear/anxiety (dfa) and phobia that will provide practitioners with a full understanding of the etiology, prevalence, assessment, and management of these conditions. the coping styles of children when under stress are explored, with discussion of their relevance to the assessment visit and treatment allocation. practical treatment techniques are comprehensively covered, from non-pharmacological behavioral strategies relevant for children with no or mild dfa to those approaches more appropriate for children with severe dfa/phobia. the importance of the use of language and communication skills to build rapport and allay anxiety is explored. relaxation and hypnosis techniques are described, with guidance on how to introduce these to patients and their parents/carers. techniques that help children cope when receiving injections are detailed, including systematic needle desensitization; these provide practitioners with options to help resolve dfa and phobia regarding needles. intravenous sedation, including the challenge of cannulation, is covered comprehensively.furthermore, cognitive behavioral therapy is presented, with suggestion of practical self-help material when appropriate. the closing chapter looks to the future, discussing the barriers to and the changes required for the creation of more child-centered dfa services.show more
this book reviews the theory and practice of fractional flow reserve (ffr)-guided coronary intervention, a technique that gives sense and a rationale to daily decisions in the interventional suite. ffr guidance provides detailed information on coronary hemodynamics for the interventional cardiologist. this technique has profound practical implications for therapeutic decisions and for the prognosis of patients. the atlas of ffr-guided percutaneous coronary interventions provides practicing physicians clear information to understand both the complexity of the technique and the correct way to apply it. it is designed both to assist younger faculty and those in training, and to act as a clinical resource for more experienced practitioners. using the clinical cases outlined, the reader can learn to appreciate the pitfalls, tips and tricks that simplify the performance and interpretation of ffr and ifr.show more
multimodality cardiovascular imaging is essential for interventional cardiac procedures and both fields are evolving rapidly. multimodality imaging in cardiac interventions captures the current state of clinical utility and provides a unique visual aide for teaching, training, and education. the editors have brought together a variety of leading experts from across the united kingdom to guide the interested viewer in the indications and practicalities of state-of-the-art techniques. this book visually demonstrates the indications and methodology involved in several important cardiac interventions that rely heavily on multimodality cardiovascular imaging for their success. chapters cover topics such as transcatheter aortic valve implantation (tavi), device closure of paravalvular leaks in the mitral and aortic positions, and the adjunctive use of computed tomographic angiography in percutaneous coronary intervention. visual simplicity in combination with excellent narration from experts in the field results in a unique up-to-date educational tool.
this book will appeal to a wide range of professionals from clinicians to potential patients and the medical press interested in learning about important advances in cardiovascular medicine.show more
the annual update compiles reviews of the most recent developments in experimental and clinical intensive care and emergency medicine research and practice in one comprehensive reference book. the chapters are written by well recognized experts in these fields. the book is addressed to everyone involved in internal medicine, anesthesia, surgery, pediatrics, intensive care and emergency medicine.show more
a practical, highly illustrative and easy to read reference for interventional cardiologists, vascular surgeons, cardiac/endovascular catheterization laboratory personnel, interventional radiologists, technical staff, industry professionals, investigators, and researchers on peripheral arterial cto interventions. peripheral cto lesions are present in nearly 50% of all peripheral arterial disease (pad) endovascular interventions. there is tremendous growth in the performance and learning of peripheral arterial cto procedures. there are several ongoing physician courses and many others that are being prepared; however, there is a significant lack of standardized selection, strategies, techniques and equipment necessary to achieve a high degree of reproducible success with low complication rates during the performance of these complex and technically challenging endovascular procedures. the book is not an academic "tour de force" description of the topic but rather a practical one with many illustrations and step-by-step explanations of the various procedure steps, what can go wrong, and troubleshooting.
heavy use of illustrations throughout limit the text to what is necessary to convey the message, and the book is supported by online case catalogues and board review questions. the book also includes never-before-published information on new technology.show more
the raison d'etre for a new atlas of congenital heart surgery is based on the reality that the specialty has undergone numerous changes in the last few years resulting in improved techniques and new operations. the sheer number of new procedures and the required attendant technical skills to successfully complete an operation has become a challenge to master, especially for residents who are pursuing a career in congenital heart surgery. while the techniques that we are espousing are mostly our own, there is a great deal of similarity amongst international centers owing to the influence of video presentations, manuscript publications, and chapter reviews. we therefore believe that the techniques that are illustrated in this atlas are likely to be similar to the techniques that are taught worldwide to residents and fellows. the atlas is organized generally by diseases and procedures pertaining thereto. two general sections involve cannulation techniques and palliative procedures, respectively.
a special section depicts difficult problems in the form of clinical vignettes that may arise during cardiopulmonary bypass such as: decreased venous return, undiagnosed patent ductus arteriosus, and technical errors leading to hemodynamic complications. the reader is instructed to apply measures that will lead to resolution of these problems. we have chosen procedures, which cover the breadth of congenital heart surgery. while perhaps not totally inclusive, the reader will find the greater majority of congenital heart procedures illustrated and explained in this text.show more
this book presents pulmonary outcomes of prematurity, from their emergence in infancy through to their consequences in adulthood. with an increasing number of preterm births and more infants surviving, there is now a larger population of adults with lung disease originating in infancy requiring specialized care. looking at the whole group of preterm infants, not just those with bronchopulmonary dysplasia, this text covers a wide spectrum of pulmonary outcomes, including: pulmonary hypertension, wheezing, and alterations in sleep. the chapter authors focus on critically appraising what is and is not known about each outcome and suggest key questions that still need to be answered. respiratory outcomes in preterm infants: sequelae from infancy through adulthood is an ideal reference for the multidisciplinary group that cares for these preterm infants and the adults they become, including: neonatologists, pediatric pulmonologists, pediatricians, adult pulmonologists, primary care physicians, nurses, and fellows.show more
this new edition is a unique combined resource for physicians and scientists addressing the needs of both groups. in addition to stimulating exchange and collaboration and shortening the path between discovery and application of new knowledge, the book helps clinicians understand new therapeutic concepts from their origins. the volume serves as a comprehensive guide to the current diagnostic modalities, including enhanced imaging techniques such as mri and ct enterography, virtual colonoscopy, ultrasound, and endomicroscopy, as well as conventional and complex immunomodulatory principles. the latest edition also includes revised chapters from the previous edition, as well as new chapters reflecting current developments in the field. written by experts in their field, crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis: from epidemiology and immunobiology to a rational diagnostic and therapeutic approach, second edition is of great value to gastroenterologists, surgeons, internists, pediatricians and gynecologists trainees, as well as all those involved in crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, and related autoimmune disorders.show more
this richly illustrated book, in an extensively revised new edition, provides a comprehensive survey of the role of medical imaging studies in the detection, staging, grading, tissue characterization, and post-treatment follow-up of soft tissue tumors. the indications for and relative merits of various imaging modalities are fully described, with particular emphasis on the role of advanced mri techniques that can improve diagnostic accuracy and evaluation of treatment response. the most recent version of the who classification of soft tissue tumors is introduced, and individual chapters are devoted to imaging of each of the tumor groups in that classification as well as other soft tissue masses. numerous new illustrations of both common and rare tumors are included, providing a rich pictorial database of soft tissue masses. in addition, imaging findings are correlated with clinical, epidemiologic, and histologic data. imaging of soft tissue tumors will be of value in daily practice not only for radiologists but also for orthopedic surgeons, oncologists, and pathologists.show more
this up-to-date, hands-on manual offers clear guidance on contouring and treatment planning for both standard and advanced radiation therapy in patients with gastrointestinal cancers and simultaneously draws together the available relevant clinical data for each type of cancer with a view to driving treatment recommendations. the full range of malignancies is covered, including esophageal, gastric, pancreatic, hepatic, biliary, colon, rectal, and anal cancers and pelvic recurrences. additional chapters are devoted to stereotactic body radiation therapy (sbrt) to the liver for metastatic disease. the management of gastrointestinal cancers with radiation therapy has become increasingly complex. specifically, the emergence of new techniques such as sbrt and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (imrt) has further increased the need to understand how to contour targets and organs at risk, how to perform safe treatment planning, and when to apply these technologies. in this context, radiation therapy for gastrointestinal cancers represents an ideal reference for both established clinical radiation oncologists and radiation oncology residents.show more
this book fulfills the need for practical guidance among all professionals involved in the management of these patients, from residents and fellows of cardiology and internal medicine, surgical teams, physiotherapy professionals, critical care physicians and family medicine practitioners. the thoroughly updated content takes into account recent developments in cardiac rehabilitation, and incorporates practical advice on how to use guidelines in clinical practice. there will be one new chapter on patients with cardiac resynchronization therapy and all the others will be updated to keep up-to-date with the guidelines and current practice. cardiac rehabilitation is of key importance to ameliorate long-term morbidity and mortality resulting from cardiac diseases and events. however, much of the current literature is dense, unwelcoming and academic in style and format. for those physicians understanding the scope of cardiac rehabilitation there is a need to distill the guidelines and various management options available to them into a concise practical manual.
up until now, all references have looked at the general options, but there is definite need to investigate the practicalities of individual patient groups.show more
this third edition reviews the epidemiology, policies, programs and outcome indicators that are used to determine improvements in nutrition and health that lead to development. this greatly expanded third edition provides policy makers, nutritionists, students, scientists, and professionals with the most recent and up-to-date knowledge regarding major health and nutritional problems in developing countries. policies and programs that address the social and economic determinants of nutrition and health are now gaining in importance as methods to improve the status of the most vulnerable people in the world. this volume provides the most current research and strategies so that policy makers, program managers, researchers and students have knowledge and resources that they can use to advance methods for improving the public's health and the development of nations. the third edition of nutrition and health in developing countries takes on a new context where the word "developing" is now a verb and not an adjective.show more
this volume provides a comprehensive introduction and review of small bowel capsule endoscopy (sbce). the book reviews the data regarding appropriate indications and contraindications for the implementation of small bowel capsule endoscopy, while discussing in detail the evolving role of sbce in the treatment of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding, and the management of inflammatory bowel disease, small bowel polyposis syndromes, and refractory malabsorption. topics such as complications of sbce, methods to perform sbce on patients with dysphagia or gastric emptying pathology, and understanding the normal anatomy of the gastrointestinal tract when viewed via sbce are also discussed. in addition, an introduction to colon capsule technology and the next generation of small bowel capsule imaging is reviewed. the text is complemented by several illustrative cases that are demonstrated with both online full length videos as well as an online interactive companion that includes review questions to reinforce concepts learned in the text.
written by experts in the field, capsule endoscopy: a guide to becoming an efficient and effective reader is an invaluable resource for novice capsule endoscopy readers, fellows in gastroenterology and hepatology, researchers, mid-level providers, residents, and medical students with an interest in learning how to implement and perform sbce in the investigation of small bowel diseases.show more
this textbook covers key areas and reviews important principles and steps in the preparation for and the performance of spine biopsy. image-guided percutaneous biopsy techniques and their application throughout the spinal axis are presented and discussed in detail. the advantages and disadvantages of various spine biopsy instruments are reviewed. commonly encountered biopsy scenarios are considered in order to help readers effectively manage these situations when they occur in their practices. clear guidance is offered on patient selection and preparation, which are critical to safe and effective outcomes, and much emphasis is placed on procedural safety, with a focus on complication avoidance and the appropriate reporting of complications. image-guided percutaneous spine biopsy will be a welcome one-stop shop providing up-to-date information for all physicians with an interest in the subject, including radiologists, surgeons, and pathologists.show more
this fully revised and updated new edition provides a comprehensive look at nitrite and nitrate and their effect on human health and disease. the first section describes the biochemical analysis of nitrite and nitrate and its role in human physiology. the book then shifts to sources of human exposure of nitrite and nitrate, including environmental and dietary. finally, the last section discusses nitric oxide-based therapeutics and how nitrite and nitrate biochemistry can be safely harnessed to improve human health. each chapter provides a balanced, evidence-based view and heavily cites the most recent published literature. they follow a strict chapter format which includes keywords, key points, a conclusion highlighting major findings, and extensive references. the second edition contains new chapters on nitrite and nitrate in age medicine, nitrite and nitrate as a treatment for hypertension, and nitrite and nitrate in exercise performance.
additionally, the editors have expanded the biochemistry section to include chapters on nitrate reducing oral bacteria, nitrite mediated s-nitrosation, epigenetics and the regulation of nitric oxide, and nitrite control of mitochondrial function. nitrate and nitrite in human health and disease, 2e, will be of interest to health professionals, nutritionists, dieticians, biomedical scientists, and food scientists.show more
this comprehensive guide covers the investigation, diagnosis, prevention, and therapy of all the bone disorders encountered in medical practice. written in an easy-to-read style, it updates physicians on the current knowledge of bone structure, physiology, and pathology, with emphasis on the diagnosis and treatment of common bone diseases. today, both medical practitioners and specialists need quick access to information on "bone problems" in order to help patients and their families. therefore this book deals with everything from the basic physiology of bone and mineral metabolism to the utility of radiologic imaging and specialized tests in bone diagnosis and current treatment recommendations. it is scientifically based but provides clear guidelines for managing bone problems and for lifelong maintenance of skeletal structure and function. it will assist not only in the delivery of effective treatment but also in disease prevention.show more
this book offers a comprehensive approach to the wide range of movement disorders, an important specialty in the field of neurology, guiding readers from the phenomenology to diagnosis and management. reflecting the latest developments in the field, it offers a unique summary of this dynamic area by pursuing a uniform approach to movement disorders curricula. divided into three parts, movement disorders curricula provides an authoritative overview of this growing branch of neurology. the first part presents the basic elements of movement disorders, including descriptions of the anatomy and physiology of the basal ganglia. it also features sections on clinical trials for movement disorders, practical skills, and rating scales. the second and third part examine in detail hypokinetic and hyperkinetic movement disorders, respectively. equipping readers with the practical and research skills needed in the movement disorders field, the book offers a valuable tool to help them prepare for board examinations on general neurology, as well as for fellowships in movement disorders.show more
this book addresses the current understanding of the diagnosis and management of biliary disease across all ages, with emphasis on how the latest advances in clinical science may be integrated into current and future therapies. the coverage is wide ranging, encompassing congenital and acquired conditions including cholestatic syndromes, biliary atresia, drug-induced cholestasis, primary biliary cholangitis/cirrhosis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, cholangiocarcinoma, gallstone disease, and autoimmune sclerosing cholangitis. with contributions from basic and clinical scientists, the relevance of state-of-the-art mechanistic biology to diagnosis, treatment, and future opportunities for drug design is clearly explained. the balance between science and clinical practice will ensure that this book makes a lasting contribution to the field. a broad readership will find the book easy to access and a rich source of information on current best practice and evolving management strategies.show more
this book describes the development of systems of magnetic resonance imaging using the higher magnetic field strength of 3 tesla, in comparison to the current gold standard of 1.5 tesla. these new systems of mri make it possible to perform with high spatial, temporal and contrast resolution not only morphological examinations but also functional studies on spectroscopy, diffusion, perfusion, and cortical activation, thus helping research and providing an important tool for routine diagnostic activity. at the same time the new systems offer unparalleled sensitivity and specificity in the numerous conditions of neuroradiological interest.show more
this book discusses the latest molecular targeted therapy of lung cancer including its evaluation and future directions. it clearly illustrates the initial dramatic effectiveness of molecular targeted therapy, recurrence of the disease, overcoming the wide variety of resistance mechanisms using new-generation molecular targeted agents and potential novel approaches. it also outlines the increasing necessity for new diagnostic technology and strategies for managing different adverse effects and novel methods for evaluating effectiveness and safety. edited and authored by opinion leaders, molecular targeted therapy of lung cancer provides a comprehensive overview of the disease and its treatments. it is a valuable resource for graduate students, post-doctoral fellows and faculty staff, as well as researchers involved in clinical and translational research on lung cancer, helping promote new ideas for further advances.show more
this is the first textbook to focus on aortopathy, a new clinical concept for a form of vasculopathy. the first section of the book starts from discussing general concept and history of aortopathy, and then deals with its pathophysiology, manifestation, intrinsic factor, clinical implication, management and prevention. the second part closely looks at various disorders of the aortopathy such as bicuspid aortic valve and coarctation of aorta. the book editors have published a lot of works on the topic and have been collecting relating data in the field of congenital heart disease for the past 20 years, thus present the book with confidence. the topic – an association of aortic pathophysiological abnormality, aortic dilation and aorto-left ventricular interaction – is getting more and more attention among cardiovascular physicians. this is the first book to refer for cardiologists, pediatric cardiologists, surgeons, achd specialists, etc. to acquire thorough knowledge on aortopathy.show more