spect and spectct a clinical guide

item-4107-9781626231511-350x495by chun kim zukotynski


internationally renowned authorities in the field of hybrid imaging contribute firsthand expertise on the practical application of single-photon emission computed tomography (spect) and spect/ct. by combining clear anatomic markers from ct with functional knowledge from spect, spect/ct provides added value for patient evaluation and is becoming increasingly prevalent in routine clinical practice. indeed, hybrid imaging is touted by many as a game changer in nuclear medicine.

the first two chapters of this book provide a foundation for understanding spect and spect/ct technological principles, including the associated radiopharmaceuticals. the remaining chapters detail the utility of spect and spect/ct in clinical practice including neuroscience and pediatrics, as well as specific pathologies. the book concludes with in-depth discussion of select case studies.

key features

  • efficacious use of spect and spect/ct for primary body systems, including the central nervous, cardiovascular, respiratory, and skeletal systems
  • value for the assessment of neoplastic disease, infection/inflammation, thyroid and parathyroid gland disorders
  • fourteen high-quality videos delineate specific techniques and clinical applications
  • meticulous, four-color graphics clearly elucidate key concepts
  • illustrative case studies offer educational teaching pearls

together, the concise, evidence-based text and wealth of spect/ct images deliver a solid knowledge base, enabling practitioners to learn the effective use of this technology. this must-have book is certain to be an invaluable resource for a diverse spectrum of practicing and trainee clinicians in fields such as radiology, nuclear medicine, and radiation oncology.

lange review computed tomography examination

sharlene snowdon


everything you need to ace the arrt[registered] computed tomography exam (ct) exam in one complete package! written by an experienced program director who knows what it takes to excel, lange review: computed tomography examination is designed to boost confidence, test-taking skills, and knowledge for anyone preparing for the exam. bolstered by nearly 500 registry-style questions with detailed answer explanations, this essential guide also includes valuable background material – covering everything from eligibility requirements to test-taking tips. you will also find two comprehensive practice exams within the text and online. it all adds up to the single-best way to increase your chance of success on the ct exam. in this book, chapter-ending practice questions assess your knowledge of essential concepts, and two comprehensive practice exams -in the book and online – to improve your confidence. it includes 495 registry-style questions with complete explanations for each answer. an informative introduction includes test taking tips, clinical experience requirements, content specifications, and certification eligibility requirements.show more

radiology of influenza 2016 a practical approach

hongjun li


this book presents the theory of influenza and its imaging characteristics. the first section introduces readers to the fundamental theory of influenza, including the etiology, epidemiology and pathogenesis of influenza, influenza-related diseases, and imaging technologies. the second section is divided into 5 chapters and includes extensive dr, ct and mri images on h1n1 influenza, h5n1, h7n9, h5n6 and h10n8 avian influenza.show more

multidetector row ct of the thorax 2016

u. joseph schoepf


since the first edition of this book was published in 2004, computed tomography has seen groundbreaking technical innovations that have transformed the field of thoracic imaging and opened novel possibilities for the detection of thoracic pathologies. this book highlights cutting-edge thoracic applications of ct imaging in the context of these technical innovations and discusses the latest opportunities, with critical appraisal of challenges and controversies. all topics are covered by renowned international experts. chapters from the original edition have been thoroughly updated to reflect the state of the art in technology and scientific evidence, and new contributions included on recent developments such as dual-energy ct and ct imaging in patients with acute chest pain. the book is abundantly illustrated with high-quality images and illustrations.show more

giant intracranial aneurysms 2016 a case based atlas of imaging and treatment

naci kocer


this atlas focuses on the imaging and treatment options available for giant intracranial aneurysms since 1990s in the beginning of the so-called modern endovascular era. during this period, there were significant advances made in the therapy of small intracranial aneurysms though the treatment of giant aneurysms continued to pose an insurmountable challenge. at the turn of this century, this grim scenario gradually improved with better understanding of the pathophysiology of giant intracranial aneurysms. this changed scenario in giant intracranial aneurysm therapy has been illustrated with the aid of informative clinical case studies. the clinical presentation of giant aneurysms in adults and children is described as are the merits of different imaging modalities explained and illustrated. extensive consideration has been given to modern fusion imaging that has improved our insight into the nature of the disease.
endovascular treatment approaches (including illustrative open surgical approaches) and reconstructive and deconstructive strategies are fully documented, with careful attention given to factors that influence management strategies, treatment choice and complications.the atlas will be a valuable reference and practical aid for neuroradiologists, neurosurgeons, neurologists, fellowship trainees, postgraduate & graduate students.show more

ct colonography for radiographers 2016 a guide to performance and image interpretation

joel harold bortz


this book explains every aspect of the role of radiographers in performing ct colonography (ctc) and interpreting ctc images with the aim of enabling radiographers to extend the scope of their practice. it provides all the information required with respect to procurement of informed consent, principles of ct and radiation dose, patient preparation and positioning, the use of contrast media, the performance of diagnostic and screening ctc studies, and the interpretation and reporting of images. a wide range of ctc findings are described and depicted, covering normal anatomy, artifacts, hemorrhoids, polyps, colon cancer, diverticular disease, lipomas, and extracolonic structures. in addition, a chapter focusing on self-assessment of image interpretation will aid learning. the rising number of ctc studies for colon disorders is adding to an already burdened radiology workload. to reduce this workload, radiographers will increasingly be given responsibility to carry out ctc examinations and this book will provide the support that they need in order to perform ctc studies to the standard required.show more

computed tomography of the retroperitoneum an anatomical and pathological atlas with emphasis on the fascial planes

m.a.m. feldberg


with the advent of ct we entered a new area of radiological imaging. structures which rarely if ever were seen became apparent. in no part of the body was the impact of ct as profound as it was in the retroperitoneum. in the pre-ct area this region of the body could not be directly studied and only when gross abnormalities were present could they be appreciated. the best we could do was to try to identify a suspected process by studying its effect on surrounding organs whose position might have been affected by the growth. urography, barium studies or angiography were employed in the hope that variation in the position of the vessels, ureter or bowel would lead us to the correct diagnosis. with computed tomography all this changed. modern scanners, available to all today, permit us to appreciate details undreamed of only few years ago. the abundance of fat in this region helps to clearly show even the smallest of structures. we now have the ability to recognize small vessels, lymph nodes and fascial planes. we had a tool which permitted us to study structures which hitherto were only seen by the anatomist or during surgical dissection.show more

ct and mri of the whole body

john r. haaga

now more streamlined and focused than ever before, the 6th edition of ct and mri of the whole body is a definitive reference that provides you with an enhanced understanding of advances in ct and mr imaging, delivered by a new team of international associate editors. perfect for radiologists who need a comprehensive reference while working on difficult cases, it presents a complete yet concise overview of imaging applications, findings, and interpretation in every anatomic area. the new edition of this classic reference – released in its 40th year in print – is a must-have resource, now brought fully up to date for today's radiology practice.

mosbys comprehensive review for general sonography examinations

's comprehensive review for general sonography examinations by susanna ovel

be confident that you can answer any and all questions on your registry exams correctly when you prepare with this complete review. "mosby's comprehensive review for general sonography examinations" provides study resources for all three main exams required for general ultrasound practice: physics, abdomen, and ob/gyn. each chapter is arranged in table and outline format with 50 review questions at the end of the chapter and a mock exam at the end of each section. access additional mock exams for each subject area on the companion cd or evolve site. these exams give you experience with timed test taking in an electronic environment that simulates the actual registry exam experience. with this realistic preview of the exam environment and solid review of the material, you'll be prepared to ace the exams!

sectional anatomy by mri and ct 4th edition

mri and ct by michael g. fox

now available with state-of-the-art digital enhancements, the highly anticipated 4th edition of this classic reference is even more relevant and accessible for daily practice. a sure grasp of cross sectional anatomy is essential for accurate radiologic interpretation, and this atlas provides exactly the information needed in a practical, quick reference format. new color coding of anatomic structures and new scroll and zoom capabilities on photos in the ebook version make this title an essential diagnostic tool for both residents and practicing radiologists.

mri of the knee

kirkland w. davis
>this issue, edited by dr. kirkland davis, will comprehensively review imaging of the knee. articles will include: magnetic resonance imaging of the meniscus; mri of cruciate ligaments; magnetic resonance imaging of the extensor mechanism; quantitative magnetic resonance imaging of the articular cartilage of the knee joint; magnetic resonance imaging of the pediatric knee; mri of extra-synovial inflammation and impingement about the knee; a biomechanical approach to interpreting mri of knee injuries; mri assessment of arthritis of the knee; mri of the post-operative meniscus; mr imaging of cartilage repair procedures; imaging the knee in the setting of metal hardware, and more

introduction to snomed ct

bhattacharyya, sb

as a general introduction to the snomed ct clinical terminology code system, the book explains in simple terms a wealth of key aspects, including the fundamentals of snomed ct, the various ways in which it can be used, and the methods by which it may quickly be deployed for use within an electronic documentation system that deals with clinical and clinics-related data. further considerations include how end users can employ the system, how healthcare it designers and developers can build highly ergonomic systems, and how health informatics experts and clinical analysts can successfully harness the various features that the clinical terminology code system provides in order to unleash the hidden potentials of clinical data.

the book brings together material from various sources, presenting it in an easy-to-follow manner and supplemented by analyses of a number of different (imaginary) scenarios including case summaries from the author’s experience and knowledge. the book will greatly benefit all stakeholders involved: clinicians, nurses, paramedics, dentists, public health professionals, health informatics professionals and healthcare it engineers involved in the design and development of information systems for healthcare. students at both the undergraduate and postgraduate levels seeking a practical introduction to snomed ct will find this book to be a valuable guide.

ocular and visual physiology clinical application

skalicky, simon e.

this book meets the growing demand among ophthalmologists, optometrists and orthoptists, in training and in practice, as well as visual neuroscientists, to have a clear, succinct and well-written textbook to objectively cover the subject of ocular and visual physiology.

ocular and visual physiology is a core knowledge component for these disciplines, and yet is often difficult to understand. however, this book clearly conveys the simple elegance of the relationship between structure and function that is the hallmark of understanding the physiology of the eye and visual system. ocular and visual physiology – clinical application is essential reading for any one hoping to have a clear understanding of the subject. students will find it a great resource to pass their exams.

each of the chapters has been independently reviewed and edited by an expert in the field with a clinical or visual scientific academic background. the text is based on the latest publications in peer-reviewed journals that are closely referenced within the body of the text.

computed tomography physical principles clinical applications and quality control 4th edition

euclid seeram

build the foundation necessary for the practice of ct scanning with computed tomography: physical principles, clinical applications, and quality control, 4th edition. written to meet the varied requirements of radiography students and practitioners, this two-color text provides comprehensive coverage of the physical principles of ct and its clinical applications. its clear, straightforward approach is designed to improve your understanding of sectional anatomic images as they relate to ct – and facilitate communication between ct technologists and other medical personnel.

principles and applications of radiological physics with pageburst online access

by donald graham, paul cloke, martin vosper

printed book plus pageburst access – you will receive a printed book and access to the complete book content electronically. pageburst enhances learning by not only bringing world class content to your fingertips but also letting you add to it, annotate it, and categorize it all in a way that suits you. pageburst frees you to spend more time learning and less time searching.

principles and application of radiological physics 6e provides comprehensive and easy-to-follow coverage of the principles and application of physics for both diagnostic and therapeutic radiography students. regardless of changes in technology and clinical grading, the most important role of the radiographer remains unchanged – ensuring the production of high quality images and optimal treatment. these should be performed with the minimum of radiation hazard to patients, staff and others. an understanding of physics and the basics of radiographic technology is essential to do this effectively. the book covers all the physics and mathematics required by undergraduate diagnostic and therapeutic radiography students, catering for those who do not have a mathematics qualification as well as for those who do.

new to this edition:

a focus upon application of physics to reflect current teaching approaches

completely revised structure, leading from science principles to applications

new chapters on ct, mri, ultrasound, pet, rni, mammography and digital imaging

electronic learning resources for students, hosted on evolve

*strong links between theory and practice throughout *clear and concise text

focus on application of physics, as well as principles

new, updated 2-colour design

new sections – equipment for x-ray production, the radiographic image and diagnostic imaging technologies

electronic learning resources for students support the text

introduction to sonography and patient care

by steven m. penny

introduction to sonography and patient care offers today’s students the training and real-world imaging experience they need to master sonography content and competencies, sets the stage for students to excel on certification exams and succeed in their professional careers. this engaging, reader-friendly book provides a powerful bridge to practice, focusing throughout on giving students a first-hand look at how they will apply their training in a clinical setting.
mirroring jrc-dms standards in every chapter, the book provides a full overview of need-to-know content delivered at a level appropriate for future sonographers.  the text includes topics often omitted in other texts, such as basic physics principles, instrumentation, knobology, patient positioning, professionalism and work ethic, equipment care, quality assurance, and legal essentials.

high resolution ct of the lung

by w. richard webb, nestor l. muller, david p naidich

looking for the seminal guide to hrct and lung abnormalities get the newly revised and updated 5th edition of high-resolution ct of the lung, the leading reference on the use of high-res computed tomography for diagnosis and assessment of diffuse lung diseases. written by leading experts in the field, this comprehensive reference offers a thorough grounding in hrct interpretation, offering the latest technical and clinical data, including recent advances in the classification and understanding of diffuse lung diseases and their hrct appearances.

  • new: full-color illustrations of histologic findings in lung disease, linked with hrct manifestations
  • new: individual chapters reviewing specific hrct findings and their differential diagnosis, including numerous new illustrations
  • new: updated chapters reviewing the most up-to-date information in hrct diagnosis, including new classifications of diffuse lung diseases, newly described diseases and their appearances, and the utility of hrct in their evaluation
  • cutting-edge hrct scans of interstitial lung diseases and hrct features
  • tables summarizing the differential diagnosis of interstitial and airspace diseases and most helpful diagnostic features on hrct
  • diagnostic algorithms
  • illustrations of normal anatomy and variants on hrct, for help in distinguishing between normal and abnormal findings

now with the print edition, enjoy the bundled interactive ebook edition, offering tablet, smartphone, or online access to:

  • complete content with enhanced navigation
  • a powerful search that pulls results from content in the book, your notes, and even the web
  • cross-linked pages, references, and more for easy navigation
  • highlighting tool for easier reference of key content throughout the text
  • ability to take and share notes with friends and colleagues
  • quick reference tabbing to save your favorite content for future use

the book contains black-and-white illustrations.


mri basic principles and applications

by brian m. dale, mark a. brown, richard c. semelka

this fifth edition of the most accessible introduction to mri principles and applications from renowned teachers in the field provides an understandable yet comprehensive update.

  • accessible introductory guide from renowned teachers in the field
  • provides a concise yet thorough introduction for mri focusing on fundamental physics, pulse sequences, and clinical applications without presenting advanced math
  • takes a practical approach, including up-to-date protocols, and supports technical concepts with thorough explanations and illustrations
  • highlights sections that are directly relevant to radiology board exams
  • presents new information on the latest scan techniques and applications including 3 tesla whole body scanners, safety issues, and the nephrotoxic effects of gadolinium-based contrast media

computer aided detection and diagnosis in medical imaging

by qiang li

improve the accurate detection and diagnosis of cancer and other diseases

despite the expansion of the cad field in recent decades, there is currently no single book dedicated to the development and use of cad systems. filling this need, computer-aided detection and diagnosis in medical imaging covers the major technical advances and methodologies shaping the development and clinical utility of cad systems in breast imaging, chest imaging, abdominal imaging, and other emerging applications.

after a historical overview of cad, the book is divided into four sections. the first section presents cad technologies in breast imaging, which is the most advanced area of cad application. the second section discusses cad technologies in chest and abdominal imaging. the third section explores emerging cad technologies in a wide range of imaging modalities designed to address a variety of diseases. the final section describes the current use of cad systems in clinical practice as well as how cad will play an important role in quantitative image biomarkers and imaging genomics research.

this book brings together existing and emerging cad approaches at a level understandable to students, cad system developers, basic scientists, and physician scientists. newcomers to cad research will learn about fundamental aspects in the process of cad system development. developers of cad systems will gain insight on designing new or improved cad systems. experienced researchers will get up-to-date information on the latest cad technologies.

atlas of pet ct imaging in oncology a case based guide to image interpretation

by tamer ozulker, filiz ozulker

this atlas is a case-based guide to the interpretation of fdg pet-ct images in clinical scenarios faced by physicians during the routine practice of oncology. the book aims to help the practitioner to overcome diagnostic dilemmas through familiarization with the physiologic distribution of fdg, normal variants and benign findings. the main focus, however, is the imaging of major oncological diseases. different pathologies are addressed in individual chapters comprising teaching files of cases, each of which corresponds to a common indication for pet-ct imaging, such as metabolic characterization of lesions, staging, restaging and evaluation of response to therapy. each case is accompanied by an explanation of the patient’s history, interpretation of the pet-ct study, and a teaching point often supported by relevant literature. this book will be of great value to residents and practitioners in nuclear medicine, radiology, oncology, radiation oncology and nuclear medicine technology.

atlas of emergency radiology vascular system chest abdomen and pelvis and reproductive system

by rita agarwala

this book presents a vast collection of radiologic images of cases seen in a very busy emergency room. it encompasses common and very unusual pathology and every imaging modality. the book is divided into four parts on pathology of the vascular system, chest, abdomen and pelvis and reproductive organs. images obtained with the modalities that best depict the abnormality in question are presented, with marking of the salient pathology and explanation of the abnormal imaging features in concise captions. whenever possible, differential diagnosis is covered using further images and guidance is also provided on selection of additional modalities to confirm the diagnosis. the book will help residents to analyze different diseases and relate pathophysiology to imaging and assist students in appreciating what is abnormal. it will be a useful guide for the busy practicing radiologist and aid clinicians in understanding the complexity of these cases and delivering better focused treatment.

atlas of contrast enhanced sonography of focal liver lesions

by tommaso vincenzo bartolotta, adele taibbi, massimo midiri

this book offers an image-based, comprehensive quick reference guide that will assist in the interpretation of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (ceus) examinations of the liver in daily practice. it describes and depicts typical and atypical behavior of both common and less frequently observed focal liver lesions. for each type of lesion, the findings on pre- and post-contrast images are presented and key characteristics are highlighted. individual chapters also focus on the assessment of response to locoregional and systemic treatment and the impact of european guidelines on ceus. the atlas of contrast-enhanced sonography of focal liver lesions will serve as an invaluable hands-on tool for practitioners who need to diagnose liver lesions using ceus in the major clinical settings: oncology patients, cirrhotic patients, and patients with incidental focal liver lesions.

review of medical dosimetry

amestoy, william

this study guide will be a reliable support and easy-to-use source of information for students in the fields of dosimetry, physics, radiation oncology, and therapy as they progress through the educational levels in preparation for board examinations. the theoretical and practical knowledge gained by students on previous courses or in clinical settings is reinforced by means of almost 1200 questions and accompanying detailed analytical answers.

in order to cater for the needs of all students, the questions are arranged according to three levels of difficulty. the level 1 questions are mainly intended for those hoping to pass the medical dosimetrist certification board (mdcb) exam but will also be beneficial for medical physics candidates taking written exams and for radiation oncology residents. the level ii questions are in general clinically related and will be relevant for any student, while the level iii questions are advanced and are especially suitable for american board of radiology candidates or those taking equivalent exams elsewhere in the world.

the study guide is broken down into different subject areas, with provision of multiple questions and answers on each subject. in addition, the mathematical and physics questions include brief explanations of how the student can solve each problem. at the end of the guide, three practice tests are included with the same number of questions as are found in the mdcb exam. these tests will help students to test their knowledge and improve their test-taking speed.

nuclear medicine and radiologic imaging in sports injuries

glaudemans, a.w.j.m., dierckx, r.a.j.o., gielen, j.l., zwerver, j. (eds.)

this comprehensive book describes in detail how nuclear medicine and radiology can meet the needs of the sports medicine physician by assisting in precise diagnosis, clarification of pathophysiology, imaging of treatment outcome and monitoring of rehabilitation. individual sections focus on nuclear medicine and radiologic imaging of injuries to the head and face, spine, chest, shoulder, elbow and forearm, wrist and hand, pelvic region, knee, lower leg, ankle and foot. the pathophysiology of sports injuries frequently encountered in different regions of the body is described from the perspective of each specialty, and the potential diagnostic and management benefits offered by the new hybrid imaging modalities – spect/ct, pet/ct, and pet/mri – are explained. in addition, a range of basic and general issues are addressed, including imaging of the injuries characteristic of specific sports. it is hoped that this book will promote interdisciplinary awareness and communication and improve the management of injured recreational or elite athletes.

diseases of the chest and heart diagnostic imaging and interventional techniques

by jurg hodler

written by internationally renowned experts, this volume is a collection of chapters dealing with imaging diagnosis and interventional therapies in chest and heart disease. the different topics are disease-oriented and encompass all the relevant imaging modalities including x-ray technology, nuclear medicine, ultrasound and magnetic resonance, as well as image-guided interventional techniques. the book represents a condensed overview of many topics relevant in chest and heart disease and is aimed at residents in radiology as well as at experienced radiologists wishing to be updated on the current state-of-the art.

coronary angioscopy

by kyoichi mizuno

this book presents a thorough review of coronary angioscopy, ranging from instructions on its use to the latest advances. starting with the structure and fundamental principles of angioscopy, it shows readers how to apply the image to comprehensive care of coronary-artery patients. plentiful color photos and illustrations will enable readers to investigate and classify plaques and thrombi and to evaluate coronary stent- and drug-based therapies. the authors are leading researchers on angioscopy. this book offers the perfect guide not only for new clinicians but also for cardiologists who have already adopted this technique for medical examination and treatment. angioscopy is a unique medical technique for visualizing the interior of blood vessels and helps physicians not only to diagnose the pathology but also to measure the effectiveness of percutaneous coronary intervention (pci) or antiarteriosclerotic drugs. furthermore, the recently developed molecular angioscopy approach allows us to observe low-density lipoprotein (ldl) oxide, collagen, and macrophages, and is rapidly growing in importance.

clinical pearls in diagnostic cardiac computed tomographic angiography

by muzammil h. musani, eric j. feldmann, michael poon

this book provides a carefully selected compilation of challenging cases representative of the situations and pathologies likely to be encountered when performing cardiovascular imaging using ct. the conditions covered include coronary artery disease, anomalous coronary arteries, congenital heart disease, coronary artery bypass grafts, infectious diseases, structural heart disease, tumors, and aortic pathology. the book also provides brief insight into use of cardiac ct geared towards the pre-procedural use in patients undergoing atrial fibrillation ablation, thoracic endovascular aortic repair, or transcatheter aortic valve replacement. in addition, scanning techniques for some of the more difficult cases that a cardiac imager may encounter in practice are reviewed. all images are high-resolution reproductions, and subsequent cardiac catheterization images are included for cases in which obstructive coronary artery disease was revealed.clinical pearls in diagnostic cardiac computed tomographic angiographyis specifically designed to meet the needs of residents, fellows, and physicians who have an interest in cardiovascular ct.

cardiac ct angiography manual

by robert pelberg

cardiac ct angiography (cta) is a rapidly growing imaging modality that provides vital diagnostic information. consequently, interest in training for this new modality is increasing exponentially, but there are few practical books dedicated to the topic and education of cardiologists in the technique.

the primary purpose of the cardiac ct angiography manual is to educate medical professionals in all relevant aspects of cardiac cta and calcium scoring in a simple, practical and concise manner. in addition, many difficult concepts that make learning cardiac cta difficult are simplified and put into context. after reading this work, the reader will be taken from novice level to a level that will allow him or her to begin clinical training experiences and will serve as a reference and review for those who have already completed training.

designed for residents and fellows in cardiology and radiology, this work makes ‘difficult to understand’ concepts easy to comprehend with the aid of simple, intuitive diagrams. concepts and terminology are completely and simply defined and explained. the book also compiles an extensive amount of relevant and difficult to obtain information in one place to serve not only as a simple educational tool but also as a reference once the reader is fully trained in using cardiac cta.

gastrointestinal imaging

by angela d. levy (editor), koenraad j. mortele (editor), benjamin m. yeh (editor)

gastrointestinal imaging presents a comprehensive review of gastrointestinal pathologies commonly encountered by practicing radiologists and residents in training. chapters are organized by organ system and include the pharynx and esophagus, stomach, small bowel, appendix, colon, anorectum, liver, gallbladder, bile ducts, pancreas, spleen, peritoneum, mesentery, and abdominal wall, and a chapter on multisystem disorders. part of the rotations in radiology series, this book offers a guided approach to imaging diagnosis with examples of all imaging modalities complimented by the basics of interpretation and technique and the nuances necessary to arrive at the best diagnosis. each pathology is covered with a targeted discussion that reviews the definition, clinical features, anatomy and physiology, imaging techniques, differential diagnosis, clinical issues, key points, and further reading. this organization is ideal for trainees’ use during specific rotations and for exam review, or as a quick refresher for the established gastrointestinal imager.